初中英语词性转换解题技巧及易错点

初中英语词性转换解题技巧及易错点

初中英语词性转换解题技巧及易错点讲解

  • 考点分析

词性转换题是中考的必考题型。词性转换要求学生根据具体的句子,用所给单词的正确形式填空。主要考查考生对词汇的掌握程度以及对一些常用的词缀的使用。词形转换是指同一词根派生出的名词、形容词、副词、动词以及反义词等词形的相互转换。

  • 专题详解

词性转换解题技巧强化
解题策略:   
    仔细阅读题干,正确理解上下文。
    ②判断空白处应填哪种词性。
    ③根据所给词进行转化,使之变为相应的词。
    ④仔细检查,确定答案。
    解题依据必定是句子成分上来分析所填词的词性。例如:名词多作主语或宾语,形容词多作定语或表语,动词作谓语等。
  

解题技巧
1. 形容词修饰名词;
2. 副词修饰形容词;
3. 名词修饰名词 
4. 前面是不定代词(somesomethingsomebodysomeone),anyanythinganybodyanyone), nonothingnobodyno one), everyeverythingeverybodyeveryone,),alleachbothmuchmany,(alittle,(afewothers),anothernoneoneeitherneither等)
所填词多为名词;
5. 前面是助动词(be, have, has,do, does,shall, did,will, should, would),所填词多为动词;
  掌握词性转换的基本知识和词性变化规则,尤其是常见的后缀变化。根据所判断的词类,联想所填词可能出现的形式或可能搭配的后缀

词性转换分类汇总
I.形容词——副词
1、加ly
quiet安静的 quick 快速的 slow慢的  beautiful美丽的 bright明亮的 careful仔细的  certain一定
clear清楚 loud大声 sad难过的  wide广泛 serious严重的 usual通常 final最后  safe安全  
 real真的 recent最近的 main主要 accurate精确的
2、去yily
easy容易的                           heavy大量
angry生气的                          hungry饥饿的
happy 快乐的                         lucky幸运的
3le结尾的,去ey
 possible可能                          gentle轻柔的
4、不变
hard难的;努力地,猛烈地              fast
early早                                late
enough足够                            straight笔直
II. 动词——名词

  1. erorress

er
farm 耕种农民 drive 驾驶驾驶员 司机teach 老师 work 工作工人 write 作家
 report  报道记者 win (winner)—获胜者 own 拥有—owner拥有者 paint画、粉刷---画家
 manage 经营经理 record 记录录音机
or
 act--actor 男演员  visit—visitor观光者 invent--inventor 发明家 calculate—calculator计算器
ress
 wait—waitress女服务员              act—actress女演员

  1. ion结尾

add—addition collect—collection 收集 discuss—discussion讨论 decide—decision决定
 invent—invention发明物 invite—invitation 邀请 operate—operation手术 pollute—pollution 污染
 review—revision 复习 solve—solution解答 organize—organization组织 locate—location地点
suggest—suggestion建议 protect---prote ction 保护

  1. ing

 begin—beginning开始 build—building大楼 say—saying 谚语 paint—painting 绘画
meet—meeting 会议

  1. 其他

serve—service 服务 speak—speech 演讲、言语 fish—fisherman 渔夫 enter—entrance 入口
know—knowledge 知识 weigh—weight 重量 please—pleasure 愉快 develop—development 发展
 choose—choice选择 tour—tourist 游客die—death 死亡 succeed—success 成功
 fly—flight 飞行、航班 memorize—memory 记忆mix—mixture 混合物 cook—cook 厨师
 save—safety 安全       act—activity 活动   able—ability 能力
III. 名词——名词
art艺术—artist画家 science—scientist 科学家city—citizen市民 custom—customer 顾客
 office—officer 官员 engine—engineer工程师 friend—friendship 友谊
 business—businessman男商人  business—businesswoman女商人
 library—librarian 图书管理员    law法律—lawyer律师
IV. 名词——形容词

  1. 名词后加ful

care—careful 小心的  use—useful 有用的 help—helpful有帮助的 thank—thankful 感激的
wonder—wonderful精彩的 power—powerful 强大的  harm—harmful 有害的
2、名词后加y
cloud—cloudy 多云的 rain—rainy 下雨的 wind—windy 有风的 snow—snowy 下雪的
 sun—sunny 晴朗的 noise—noisy 吵闹的 health—healthy 健康的 fun—funny 滑稽的
 luck—lucky 幸运的
3、名词后加ly
 friend—friendly 友好的          love—lovely 可爱的    livelively 活泼的
4、形容词以al 结尾
nation—national 国家的 education--educational 教育的 nature—natural 自然的
tradition—traditional 传统的 medicine—medical 医药的 physics—physical 物理的
chemistry—chemical 化学的 history—historical 历史的
5、名词末尾的ce变成t
 difference(s)—different 不同     importance—important 重要的
6、名词后加en
 wood—wooden木制的    gold—golden金色的      (wool—woolen 羊毛的)
7名词以ness结尾
  kindness仁慈—kind仁慈的    illness病 疾病--- ill有病的 不健康的
8、形容词后加y
 difficult—difficulty 困难             honest—honesty诚实
9、形容词后加dom
     free—freedom 自由                 wise—wisdom 聪明
10、其他
danger—dangerous 危险的office—official 官方的、正式的fool傻瓜—foolish 愚蠢的
west—western 西方的height高度— high高的 length长度—long 长的
favour恩惠—favourite 最喜欢的 foreigner外国人—foreign 外国的 home—homeless 无家可归的
 expense费用—expensive 昂贵的 truth真相—true 真实的
wound创伤—wounded 受伤的pleasure—pleasant 另人愉快的/ pleased 满意的
  response相应 反映--- responsible 负责的 有责任的 
  electricity—electric电的 electrical 与电有关的—electronic 电子的
V. 动词——形容词
 interest引起兴趣—interesting 有趣的/ interested 感兴趣的 
 excite—exciting 令人激动的/ excited激动的 freeze—freezing 寒冷的/ frozen 冷冻的
frighten—frightening 令人害怕的/ frightened害怕的
forget—forgetful健忘的 / unforgettable 难忘的 depend—independent 独立的 有主见的
like—likely很有可能发生的 有希望的  realize意识到—real 真的
 break—broken 碎的  follow—following 下面的   fill—full 满的、饱的
 enjoy—enjoyable使人愉快的 change—changeable 多变的 act—active 积极的
 attract—attractive 吸引人的 die—dead 死的 widen拓宽—wide 宽的 live—alive活的
VI. 前缀
 possible—impossible (polite, patient)可能不可能 tell—retell复述
 build—rebuild 建造重建
healthy—unhealthy健康的不健康的
 honest—dishonest诚实不诚实的
 appear—disappear出现消失
 like—dislike 喜欢不喜欢
male—female 男性女性
VII. 国名——国籍
Australia—Australian    America—American   Canada—Canadian   Britain—British
England—English   Italy—ItalianFrance— French   Germany—German (德国人复数Germans)

强化练习
从句子成分角度完成下列习题:
1. Thanksgiving is a ______ festival in the USA and Canada. (tradition)
2. There were only a few _____ from the air-crash. (survive)
3. After careful ____, the committee decided to recommend Mr. Smith for the post. (consider)
4. Do you agree that it is important to make yourself _____? (understand)
5. Ive lived in Chongqing for several years and Im now used to _______hot food. (eat)
6. He has to check the _____ of a difficult word before he uses it. (spell)
7. The businessman lost a _______ chance to make a big fortune. (gold)
8. Im the least         of all the doctors here.  (experience)
9. In some parts of this city, missing a bus means ______ for another hour. (wait)
10. Her early ______ gave everyone a big surprise. arrive
11. The little girl gave an ______ wonderful performance last night. extreme
12. The more challenging the journey is, the ______ the young people will feel. happy
13. There has not been a favorable  ______ to your plan so far. respond
14. After they got on the bus, they found two _______. (sit)
15. What we have had is just part of the truth. We should try to get ___________ information about it. (far)
16. Now more and more gardens are being built in our __________. (neighbour)
17. _________ speaking, the computer has become an important part of our life. (general)
18. It will ______ rain this afternoon, for the sky is so dark now. (impossible)
19. Many people in China are not familiar with ________ customs. (west)
20.The room is so dirty that a lot of __________ can be seen running here and there. (mouse)
21. It's rude to look ________ at a person. (straight)
22. There is no short-cut to _________. ( succeed )
23. The reporter went to the sea with several _________ to look for the lost boat. (fish)
24. There are many places of ________ interest in Shanghai. (history)
25. Mr. Marko is one of the __________ of that factory. (engine)
26. Its ten _________ walk from here. You neednt take a bus. (minute)
27. Jacky told us an ________ story that everybody laughed happily. (amusement)
28. Thanks for _______ me. I’ll do my best. (choice)
29. It’s much ___________ to swim with your friend than to swim alone. (safe)
30. It was snowing _________ outside. (hard)
31. How many ___________ lessons do you have every week? (physical)
32. They were well ____________ at a friend’s house. (service)
33. The sun gives us light and ________. (hot)
34. We saw her running _________ the street just now. (cross)
35. I’ll do my homework more __________ next time. (care)
36. In _________ to hard work, we need some good ways to succeed. (add)
37. In the past punishment(惩罚)was decided by the university. The student had no ___________ but to accept it. (choose)
38. A ___________ sight stopped them from going forward. (frighten)
39. The visitors are ________ students.  (main)
40. Of all the boys, Li Ming studies ______. (hard)
41. These modern machines work ____. (automatic)
42. Actions speak  _____ than words. (loud)
43. I _________ where he comes from. (wonderful)
44. We tried all sorts of __________, but they were all useless. (medical)
45. Carl looks much ________ than before. (health)
46. The little boy can run a marathon in __________ than three hours. (little)
47. The lost calculator has been returned to its __________. (own)
48. Even __________, he lost his job.  (bad)
49. Life today is becoming harder and busier, so everyone should have his own way of __________. (relax)
50. I am fond of _________ fiction. (scientist)
51. Could you tell me whether it is a ________ change or a physical change? ( chemistry )
52. The students are not allowed to touch the ________ without permission. ( chemistry )
53. Do you know who the telephone was________ by? (invention)
54. We went to a beautiful lake and spent an _______________ day. (forget)
55. What _____________ weather we are having now! (freeze)
56. He tried to make more money to work out a solution to travelling _____________ (expensive)
57. She _______ her face with her hands.  (discover)
58. Our house____________ an area of 200 square metres. (discover)
59. The great_______ always teaches me how to _______ the ________ (paint)
60. He is one of the most famous _________ in the university. (professional)

答案:
1-5    traditionalsurvivorsconsiderationunderstoodeating
6-10   spellinggoldenexperiencedwaitingarrival;         
11-15  extremelyhappierresponseseatsfurther     
16-20  neighborhoodGenerallypossiblywesternmice
21-25  straightsuccessfishermenhistoricalengineers
26-30  minutes'amusingchoosingsaferhard
31-35  physicsservedheatacrosscarefully
36-40  additionchoicefrighteningmainlyhardest
41-45  automaticallylouderwondermedicinehealthier    
46-50  lessownerworserelaxationscience
51-55  chemicalinventedunforgettablefreezing    
55-60  expensecoveredcoverspainter- paint-painting professor