.1 一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。 时间状语: every…, sometimes,ofen,always,usually, twice a week, at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.  He watches Tv once a week .

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun.  Shanghai lies in the east of China.

3) 表示格言或警句中。 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。


例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much.     Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup.   I am doing my homework now.

第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。

  1. 二. 构成及变化  1、be动词的变化

肯定句:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如: I am a boy.  我是一个男孩。

否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。如:He is not a worker.  他不是工人。

一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。 如:-Are you a student?  -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?

2、行为动词的变化    当主语为第一,二人称及复数时,助动词为do

肯定句:主语+动词原形(+其它)。  如: We often play basketball after school.

否定句:主语+ don't+动词原形(+其它)。  如:we don’t play basketball after school.

一般疑问句:Do +主语+动词原形+其它? 如:Do you often play basketball after school l? Yes, we do. / No, we don't.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+以do开头的一般疑问句?  如: What do you often do after school ?

当主语为第三人称单数时 ,助动词为does

肯定句:主语+动词三单式(+其它)。如: He swims well.

否定句:主语+ doesn’’’t+动词原形(+其它)。如:He doesn’t swim well.

一般疑问句:Does +主语+动词原形+其它如:Does he swim well?Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+以does开头的一般疑问句? 如: How does your father go to work?


(1)多数动词直接加s:  runs gets likes collets takes plays climbs…….

(2)结尾是s, x, sh, ch, o,前为辅音字母,结尾加es :

watches teaches goes does washes crosses mixes brushes

(3)动词末尾y前为辅音:将y改为i加es:study→studies fly→flies carry→carries cry→cries

但在y前如果为元音则直接加s:  buys   says

2 一般过去时的用法


时间状语有:yesterday, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982   yesterday morning (afternoon, evening…)  last night (week, month, year…), a moment ago , a week ago, three years ago… just now,等。   Where did you go just now?


When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.


It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……时间了"  "该……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……了"

It is time for you to go to bed.  你该睡觉了。

It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'

I'd rather you came tomorrow.

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。

I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。


Christine was an invalid all her life.


Christine has been an invalid all her life.


Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.


Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

Did you want anything else?

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情态动词 could, would.    Could you lend me your bike?

3 used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。

Mother used not to be so forgetful.

Scarf used to take a walk.  (过去常常散步)

be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。

He is used to a vegetarian diet.

Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)


典型例题  ---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.     ---- It's 69568442.

  1. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't

答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看 出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。


  1. Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:

am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not= wasn’t)

are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t)

带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。


肯定句 : 主语 + 动词的过去式 .I watched a film last Sunday .

否定句 : 主语+ didn’t + 动词原形. I didn’t watch a film last Sunday .

一般疑问句Did + 主语 + 动词原形 ?        Did you watch a film last Sunday ?

Yes, I did . No , I didn’t .

特殊疑问句:疑问词+ 以did 开头的一般疑问句 ?  What did you do last Sunday ?

3、现在进行时  一、意义——当表示现在正在进行的动作或正在发生的事。

时间标志——now,句前的look ,listen

二、构成:be (am, is ,are )+动词现在分词-ing形式

肯定句:主语 + be + 现在分词V-ing (+ 其他)    I’m doing my homework now .

否定句:主语+be+not+动词-ing +其他.    I’m not doing my homework now.

一般疑问句:Be+主语+动词-ing +其他?

Are you doing your home work now?     Yes, I am . No , I’m not .

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+be+主语+动词-ing+其他?   What are you doing now ?




如 skate →skating make →making dance → dancing write → writing have → having

ride → riding come → coming

(3)以重读闭音节结尾的动词,中间只有一个元音字母,词尾只有一个辅音字母,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing, 如: putting running beginning stopping swimming shopping jogging

sitting getting forgetting letting


a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。We are waiting for you.

b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.

c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

The leaves are turning red.      It's getting warmer and warmer.

d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。        You are always changing your mind.


My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it.

A. has lost, don't find   B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found  D. is missing, haven't found.

答案D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然存在,应用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时。

9 不用进行时的动词

1) 事实状态的动词

have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue

I have two brothers.

This house belongs to my sister.

2) 心理状态的动词

Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate

I need your help.

He loves her very much.

3 ) 瞬间动词

accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse.

I accept your advice.

4) 系动词

seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn

You seem a little tired.

4 过去进行时



3) 常用的时间状语

this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while

My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.

It was raining when they left the station.

When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.


1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.

  1. made  B. is making  C. was making  D. makes

答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同 时,when表时间的同时性,"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell

答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。


was/were  + 动词的现在分词


如:He was reading a book at 5:00pm yesterday.

→He was not reading a book at 5:00 yesterday.

→Was he reading a book at 5:00 yesterday?  (Yes, he was./ No, he wasn’t.)

→What was he doing at 5:00 yesterday?


  1. 过去进行时主要表示过去某个时刻正在进行的动作,常和表示过去的状语连用。如:

(just)then 那时,当时     at this/that time 在这/那时     yesterday afternoon昨天下午

at nine 在九点       last night 昨晚         (at)this time yesterday在昨天这个时候


①What were you doing at nine last night?     昨晚九点的时候,你在做什么?

②I was watching TV at home yesterday afternoon.      我昨天下午正在家里看电视。

③They were playing football at this time yesterday.昨天这个时候他们在踢足球。

2.过去进行时也可以表示过去某一段时间内正在进行的动作。常与those days, the whole morning, from 8:00 to 12:00 last night等时间状语连用。

(1)From 1983 to 1998 , he was teaching at Yale . 从1983到1998年,他正在耶鲁大学教书。

(2)They were building a bridge last winter . 去年冬天他们正在造一座桥。

(3)  He was writing a book those days. 那几天他正在写一本书

3.过去进行时与频度副词always forever, continually, constantly等连用时表示过去经常反复的动作,常常带有埋怨、讨厌、赞扬或喜爱等情绪。

⑴My sister was always forgetting things.(表示埋怨)

⑵He was always helping others. (表示赞扬)

  1. 过去进行时表示过去将要发生的动作。


①Lucy arrived in Beijing last Friday. But she was leaving for Hong Kong the next morning.


②She asked him if he was coming back for lunch.   她问他午饭是否准备回来吃。



① I wrote a letter this morning.  今天上午我写了一封信。(信写完了)

I was writing a letter this morning.  今天上午我在写一封信。(信不一定写完)

② The children watched TV yesterday evening.  昨天晚上孩子们看了电视。(强调过去发生了这件事)

The children were watching TV yesterday evening.  昨晚孩子们都在看电视。(强调昨晚看电视这一动作的持续性)

(2) 表示过去的状态、感觉及心理活动的静态动词(如be, like, love, hate, fear, own, hear, see, know, want, notice)可用于一般过去时,但通常不用于进行时。如:

I hated it when a man spoke with his mouth full of food. 我讨厌人们说话时口里含着食物。

(3) 一般过去时与always, constantly, forever, continually等连用,表示“过去经常性、习惯性的动作”;而过去进行时与always, constantly, forever, continually等连用,表示动作的重复,常带有感****彩。如:

He always got up at six. 他过去总是六点起床。

He was always thinking of his work. 他总是一心想到工作。

(4) 有时过去进行时可以用来替换一般过去时,但一般过去时表示主语的行为是经过认真考虑的;而过去进行时表示一种较随便或没有进行仔细考虑的行为。如:

I thought that he would agree with us. 我原以为它会同意我们的。

I was thinking of persuading him to follow my advice. 我想到了要说服他接受我们的建议

  1. 使用过去进行时应注意的几点

(1) 动词hope, wonder等的过去进行时常用来表示提出要求,虽然表示现在的内容,但语气比一般现在时或一般过去时要委婉。如:

I was wondering whether you could come to join us. 我想你能否过来跟我们一起活动?


(1). 表示过去某一阶段暂时性的习惯动作时。如:

Tom was getting up at six o’clock every day that week. 汤姆那一周里每天都是六点钟起床。

(2). 与always连用表示赞美,厌烦等感情色彩时。如:

John was always coming to school late. 约翰上学总是迟到。

Lei Feng was always doing good deeds for the people. 雷锋总是为人民做好事。

(3) 用来描写故事发生的情景时。如:

It was a dark night. The wind was blowing hard and the rain was falling heavily. A PLA man suddenly appeared on the river bank. He wanted to cross the river.那是一个漆黑的夜晚,风刮得很厉害,雨下得很大,一个解放军战士突然出现在河岸上,他想过河去。

(4) when作并列连词,表示“(这时)突然”之意时,第一个并列分句用过去进行时,when引导的并列分句用一般过去时。如:

I was taking a walk when I met him. 我正在散步,突然遇见了他。

We were playing outside when it began to rain. 我们正在外边玩,这时下起雨来了。

(5) go, come, leave, start, arrive等动词可用过去进行时表示过去将来的含义。如:

I was leaving for Wuhan that day. 那天我正要去武汉。

She was coming later. 她随后就来。

8过去进行时表示婉转语气(只限于want, hope, wonder 等动词),用以提出请求。如:

I was wondering if you could help me.

I was hoping you could send me home.

三、when, while 的用法



  • when引导的时间状语从句的谓语动词可以是短暂性动词,也可以是延续性动词,而while引导的时间状语从句中的谓语动词只能是延续性动词。
  • when引导的从句谓语动词如果是短暂性动词则用一般过去时,主句是延续性动词则用过去进行时,从句动作发生在主句动作的时间段之内(长动作用过去进行时,短动作用一般过去时);如果主句和从句两个谓语动词都是延续性动词则全部用过去进行时,这时when和while都可以用。
  • when从句的谓语动词可以在主句谓语动作之前、之后或同时发生;while和as从句的谓语动作必须是和主句谓语动作同时发生。
  • when和while两个词还可以用作并列连词,但意思不同,when相当于“在那时”,等于at that time或just then;而while则相当于“而;却;但是”;相当于but,表示对比关系。(这一点暂时可以不掌握)
  1. ⑴ I was playingcomputer games whenmy father got home.

= When my father got home,I was playing computer games.

(2) Mother was cooking when/while I was doing my homework.

= When/While I was doing my homework, mother was cooking.


  • Simon _____________ (make) a model plane at 8:00 a.m.
  • Peter ______________(do) his homework at seven last night.
  • They ____________ (watch) a football matchfrom 7:00 to 9:00 last night.
  • He _____________(try) to draw a plane on the blackboardat that time.
  • What book ________ you ____________(read) whenI ________ (see)you at four yesterday afternoon?
  • While she __________ (watch) TV, her son ____________ (play) outside the room.
  • It ________ (begin) to rain whilewe _____________(work) in the field.
  • I ________ (do) my homework last night whenthe light _______ (go) out. {go out 意为熄灭}
  • ——I saw you in the reading room yesterday , Tom. What were you doing?

------Oh, I ____________ (read) some books on science.

  1. Girls ___________(dance) whileboys ____________(sing) at the party.

11.--- Did you see Tim just now?

--- Yes. He __________ (fish) by the river.

12.When the teacher ______ (come) into the classroom, the students __________(laugh)loudly.



时间标志:tomorrow , soon , next Monday ,  next year , next weekend , this afternoon , this evening ……

  1. 二. 构成及变化:


be going to+动词原形 : 表示打算、准备做的事或即将发生或肯定要发生的事。

shall/will+动词原形 : 表示将要发生的动作或情况,没有太多的计划性, 还用来表示意愿

⑴ be going to +动词原形

㈠肯定句 主语+be(am /,is,/ are) going to +动词原形+其它成份

My sister is going to learn English next year.  我姐姐准备明年学英语。

㈡否定句 主语+be(am / is / are)not going to +动词原形 +其它成份

I am not going to(go to)the cinema tonight.  我今天晚上不打算去看电影。

㈢一般疑问句  Be (am / is / are)+主语+going to+动词原型+其它成份…?

Is your father going to play basketball with you ?你父亲打算和你去打篮球吗?No , he isn’t.不。

㈣.特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词(Wh-)+一般疑问句 ?

Where are you going to spend Spring Fesital.?  春节你打算在哪过?

㈤.注意: be going to 结构后面习惯上不跟 go , come 等表位移的动词,一般用该动词的进行时形式表示。

如: He’s going to New York next week.下周他要去纽约.

⑵.will /shall +动词原形

(在书面语中,主语是第一人称时,常用shall ,在口语中,所有人称都可以用will)

1.肯定句 主语+will/shall+动词原形+其它成份

(shall) write to him next week.下周我将给他写信。

2.否定句 主语 + will /shall+ not + 动词原形 +其它成份

They won’t watch TV this evening.  今天晚上他们不看电视。

3.一般疑问句 will/shall+主语 +动词原形+其它成份

Will you stay at home with us tomorrow ?  明天你和我们呆在家里好吗?

4.特殊疑问句特殊疑问词(Wh-) +一般疑问句

When will your father be back? 你爸爸什么时侯回来?

三、附 :Shall I /we …常用来征求对方意见,而问对方是否愿意,或者表示客气的邀请,常用Will you…?他们的回答比较灵活。

1.Shall we go to the park ?

肯定Sure , let’s go .

否定 No , let’s go to the cinema.

2.Will you please come to my birthday party next week ?

肯定Yes, I will. / Sure .

否定 I’m sorry. I’m afraid I can’t.

四、时间标志:tomorrow , soon , next Monday ,  next year , next weekend , this afternoon , this evening ……

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。

c. 有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3)  be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

5 be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来        will 表意愿

If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror

6 be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。

be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon.   (客观安排)

I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)

.7 一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.


Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.


When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。

I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

.8 用现在进行时表示将来

意为:"意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay等。

I'm leaving tomorrow.

Are you staying here till next week?


2.时间状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.
3.基本结构:was/were/going to + do;would/should + do.
4.否定形式:was/were/not + going to + do;would/should + not + do.
5.一般疑问句:was或were放于句首;would/should 提到句首。
6.例句:He said he would go to Beijing the




I didn't know if she would come。                    I wasn't sure whether he would do it。

Wang Lei said that she would visit her uncle next Saturday。

过去将来时也可以用“was(were) going to +动词原形”来表示。如:

I didn't know if she was going to come。             Wang Lei said that she was going to visit her uncle next Saterday。



标志词:already, yet, just, ever, never, before


标志词:for, since, since…ago

基本结构:助动词have/has + 动词的过去分词


1)肯定式:主语 + have / has + 过去分词

2)否定式:主语 + have / has + not + 过去分词

3)一般疑问句: Have / Has + 主语 + 过去分词

Yes, 主语 + have/has.(肯定)  No, 主语 + haven't/hasn't.(否定)

4)特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+have/has+主语+过去分词

例句1. 过去某时发生的动作到目前为止这个动作已经完成或刚刚完成。

如:1)I have finished my homework. 我做完家庭作业了。(过去某时开始做,到现在已完成)

2)He has already come 他已经来了。(过去某时开始离开某地到这来,现在已在这。)

  1. 表示动作发生在过去并延续到现在。

如:1)I have studied English for six years. 我已经学了六年英语了。

(六年前开始学英语,一直学到现在, 也可能继续学也可能就此不学了。)

2)I have lived in Shenyang since 1990. 我从1990年就在沈阳住。


注意1) 当表示一段时间,现在完成时可以用for 或since引导的状语。

例如:I’ve known Li Li for 4 years. 我认识丽丽已经4年了。

I have worked here since 8 years ago. 自从8年前我就在这工作。

注意2) 当在肯定陈述句中含有already或just 时,在转换成否定句时,要把句中的already 或just 去掉,在句末加上yet.。

例如:I have already seen the film. ------ I haven’t seen the film yet.

He has just come. He hasn’t come yet?


1.“have/ has got ” 形式上是一种完成时,但和have/ has 为同一意思“有”。

如:Have you got pen-friends? Yes, I have.


Has he got a lot of work to do? No, he hasn’t.


  1. have/has gone to 、have/has been to 和have/has been in的区别

have/ has gone to 去了,在去某地的路上或在某地,人还未回来

have/ has been to 曾经去过,人已经回来了

have/ has been in 已经在,常与一段时间连用

如:He has been to Shenyang before. 他以前曾去过沈阳。

He has been in Shenyang for ten years. 他在沈阳10年了。

Has he gone to Shenyang? 他去沈阳了吗?

  1. have/ has been to常和once, twice, never, ever连用;have/ has gone to则不可。

例如:─ Has Tom ever been to Paris? 汤姆去过巴黎吗?

─ Yes, he’s been there several times. 是的,他去过好几次了。

─ Where have they gone? 他们去哪里了?

─ They’ve gone to Shenyang. 他们去沈阳了。

4.非延续性动词不能用“现在完成时 + 表示一段时间的状语”的句型中。

这类动词有:come, go, start, leave, die, buy, finish, join, borrow, stop等。但它们能够用表示持续状态的相应的延续性动词替换句中的非延续性性动词。

例如: arrive, come → be here,   be in buy → have begin, start → be on ;

die → be dead       finish, end → be over   go out → be out

join → be in        borrow→keep    finish/end →be over

close →be closed   leave, move → be away; fall asleep → be asleep

10 比较过去时与现在完成时




yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语


this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately


for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet,      till / until, up to now, in past years, always,


3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.

过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。


I saw this film yesterday.


I have seen this film.


Why did you get up so early?


Who hasn't handed in his paper?


She has returned from Paris.


She returned yesterday.


He has been in the League for three years.


He has been a League member for three years.


He joined the League three years ago.

( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。)

I have finished my homework now.

---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?

---He's already been sent for.

句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.


1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

It is the first time that I have visited the city.

It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.

This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.


This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。


(1) ---Do you know our town at all?

---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

  1. was  B. have been  C. came  D. am coming

答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。

(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?

---No, it's the first time I ___ here.

  1. even, come  B. even, have come  C. ever, come  D. ever, have come

答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。


(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.

8 过去完成时

2.时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc.
3.基本结构:had + done.
4.否定形式:had + not + done.
6.例句:As soon as we got to the station, the train had left.
By the end of last month. We had reviewed four books

2) 用法

a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

b. 状语从句


When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。

He said that he had learned some English before.

By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.


The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.

  1. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

答案D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正忙于……"这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生。因此


注意: had no … when     还没等…… 就……

had no sooner… than  刚…… 就……

He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.


.1 用一般过去时代替完成时

1)两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。

When she saw the mouse,she screamed.

My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

2 ) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。

When I heard the news, I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。

Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

2 一般现在时代替将来时


When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately

He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。


(1)He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment.

A. had not given; had not succeeded  B. would not give; succeed

C. will not give; succeed       D. would not give; will succeed.

答案B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有He said,故为过去式。主句用将来时,故选B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。

(2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动。

The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。(实际上每天如此。)


1 )"书上说","报纸上说"等。

The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow.


2) 叙述往事,使其生动。

Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.

4 一般现在时代替完成时

1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时:

hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember.

I hear (= have heard) he will go to London.

I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is.

2) 句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"

3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met.

5 一般现在时代替进行时

1) 句型:Here comes… ; There goes…

Look, here comes Mr. Li.


1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。

Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗?

We are leaving soon.  我们马上就走。

2) 渐变动词,如:get, run, grow, become, begin及die。

He is dying.


1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或不变的事实,则永远用现在时。

At that time, people did not know that the earth moves.

He told me last week that he is eighteen.

2) 宾语从句中的助动词ought, need, must, dare 时态是不变的。

He thought that I need not tell you the truth.

8 时态与时间状语


一般现在时  every …, sometimes, at …, on Sunday,

一般过去时  yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now

一般将来时  next…, tomorrow, in+时间,

现在完成时  for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always, recently

过去完成时  before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as

过去进行时  this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while

将来进行时  soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening


(    )1. There _______ no hospitals in my hometown fifty years ago.

  1.  is        B. are        C. was          D. were

(    )2. --- Who sings best in your class?    --- Jenny _______.

  1. do          B. did        C. does        D. has done

(    )3. --- _____ the young girl _____ the old man clean his room every day?   --- Yes, she does.

  1. Does; help      B. Has; helped    C. Did; help        D. Do; helps

(    )4. --- Can I go to Beijing for my holiday, Dad?   --- You can when you _______ a bit older.

  1. will get        B. get        C. are getting       D. got

(    )5. --- What does Linda often do in the evening?

--- She often _______ her homework, but on the evening of March 12 she _______ TV.

  1. does; watches    B. is doing; watched     C. does; watched    D. is doing; was watching

(    )6. Our geography teacher told us yesterday that the earth _______ around the sun.

  1. was moving        B. moved    C. has moved         D. moves

(    )7. If he _______harder, he will catch up with us soon.

  1. study        B. studies       C. will study       D. studied

(    )8. --- Don’t forget to ask him to write to me.

--- I won’t. As soon as he _______, I’ll ask him to write to you.

  1. will come               B. came     C. comes            D. is coming

(    )9. --- Do you like this silk dress? --- Yes, I do. It _______ so soft and comfortable.

  1. is feeling              B. feels      C. has felt            D. is felt

(    )10. Oh, it’s you. I’m sorry I _______ know you _______ here.

  1. don’t; are       B. didn’t; are     C. didn’t; were         D. don’t; were

(    )11. Mr Lu Xun died in 1936. He _______ a lot of famous novels.

  1. wrote      B. was writing      C. has written         D. would write

(    )12. --- Your telephone number again? I _______ quite catch it.      --- It’s 2567321.

  1. can’t       B. couldn’t     C. don’t      D. didn’t

(    )13. --- How was your weekend on the farm?     --- Great! We _______ with the farmers.

  1. enjoy ourselves      B. went fishing     C. will work           D. make friends

(    )14. --- What did Mr Jones do before he moved here?

--- He _______ a city bus for over twenty-five years.

  1. is driving         B. drove     C. has driven        D. drives

(    )15. Jane _______ a new dress every month when she was in Shanghai.

  1. buys        B. is buying          C. bought            D. will buy

(    )16. --- Liu Mei can’t come tonight. --- Why? But she _______ me she would come.

  1. tells        B. told       C. is told     D. had told

(    )17. He turned off the light and then _______.

  1. leaves                 B. has left        C. will leave       D. left

(    )18. --- Keep quiet, please. They _______ a meeting. --- Sorry.

  1. have       B. had         C. are having      D. have had

(    )19. --- Jimmy is leaving for a holiday. --- Really? Where _______ he _______?

  1. has; gone        B. will; go     C. did; go         D. would; go

(    )20. Frank _______ to see his grandma if he _______ free tomorrow.

  1. will come; will be      B. comes; is   C. will come; is          D. comes; will be

(    )21. There _______ a talk on science in our school next Monday.

  1. will give     B. will be     C. is going to give        D. is

(    )22. --- Shall we go shopping now?

--- Sorry, I can’t. I _______ my shirts.

  1. wash               B. washes      C. washed             D. am washing

(    )23. Hurry up! We’re all waiting for you. I _______ for an important phone call. Go without me.

  1. wait               B. was waiting       C. am waiting        D. waited

(    )24. --- Did you see Tom at the party? --- No, he _______ by the time I got there.

  1. had left           B. was leaving      C. left           D. has left

(    )25. --- Is this raincoat yours? --- No, mine _______ there behind the door.

  1. has hung       B. is hanging C. hung          D. will hang

(    )26. ---  _______ you _______ TV at the moment? --- No, you can turn it off.

  1. Did; watch       B. Are; watching     C. Do; watch        D. Have; watched

(    )27. I don’t think Jim saw me; he _______ a book at that moment.

  1. just read          B. has just read     C. was just reading   D. had just read

(    )28. Mr Smith _______a book about China last year but I don’t know whether he has finished it.

  1. has written         B. wrote    C. had written        D. was writing

(    )29. --- I called you at seven yesterday evening, but there was no answer.

--- Oh, I am sorry. I _______ dinner at my friend’s home.

  1. am having           B. had     C. was having         D. have had

(    )30. --- Do you know Miss Wang?

--- Yes. I first met her two years ago. She _______ at a radio shop at that time.

  1. was working          B. has worked    C. is working          D. had worked

(    )31. Mr White _______ the newspaper, while his daughter _______TV.

  1. read; was watching  B. was reading; watched C. was reading; was watching D. read; watched

(    )32. --- I _______ you at the meeting. Why?        --- I  was ill.

  1. saw     B. have seen C. not see  D. didn’t see

(    )33. When the teacher came in, the students _______ about the new film.

  1. are talking       B. were talking C. talked           D. talks

(    )34. The 2004 Athens Olympic Games _______ on August 13.

  1. has begun         B. lasted C. began             D. has lasted

(    )35. Hurry up! The play _______ for ten minutes.

  1. has been on        B. has begun C. had begun          D. began

(    )36. --- May I speak to Mr Smith? --- Sorry, he _______ Australia. But he _______ in two days.

  1. has been to; will come back B. has gone to; will be back
  2. has been in; would come back D. is leaving for; doesn’t come back

(    )37. I can’t go to see the film tonight, because I ______ my ticket.

  1. have lost      B. lost C. will lose   D. was losing

(    )38. --- What do you think of the film Harry Potter? --- It is very nice. I _______ it twice.

  1. will see        B. have seen         C. saw        D. see

(    )39. We _______to learn English five years ago. We _______ it for five years up to now.

  1. began; learned    B. begin; have learned  C. have begun; had learned   D. began; have learned

(    )40. --- What a nice bike! How long _______ you _______ it?   --- Just two weeks.

  1. have; bought       B. did; buy       C. have; had          D. are; having

(    )41. You don’t have to describe her. I _______ her several times.

  1. had met       B. have met       C. met      D. meet

(    )42. --- I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.--- Oh, not at all. I _______ here only a few minutes.

  1. have come        B. had been      C. was                 D. have been

(    )43. --- _______ my dictionary anywhere?--- Yes. I saw it on your desk a moment ago.

  1. Have you seen       B. Do you see    C. Had you seen       D. Would you see

(    )44. --- I haven’t heard from Li Jun for a long time.--- What do you think _______ to him?

  1. was happening      B. to happen   C. has happened        D. had happened

(    )45. --- Do you know our town at all?--- No, this is the first time I _______ here.

  1. was           B. have been      C. came         D. am coming

(    )46. We were all surprised when he made it clear that he _______ office soon.

  1. leaves          B. would leave    C. will leave              D. had left

(    )47. --- How long _______ your father _______ the Party? --- For more than twenty years.

  1. has; joined      B. did; join       C. has; been in      D. does; join

(    )48. Mrs Smith _______ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband _______ home.

  1. has left; comes    B. left; had come  C. had left; would come   D. had left; came

(    )49. Do you know Betty very well? Yes, she and I _____ friends since we met in Guangzhou last summer.

  1. have made        B. have become    C. have been        D. have turned

(    )50. What did your son say in the letter?   He told me that he ____ the Disney World the next day.

  1. would visit      B. has visit  C. is going to visit        D. will visit


1-5 DCABC        6-10 DBCBC       11-15 ADBBC    16-20 BDCBC

21-25 BDCAB      26-30 BCDCA      31-35 CDBCA    36-40 BABDC

41-45 BDACB      46-50 BCDCA